Relative Clause

We use relative clauses to give additional information about something without starting another sentence. By combining sentences with a relative clause, your text becomes more fluent and you can avoid repeating certain words.

How to Form Relative Clauses 

Imagine, a girl is talking to Tom. You want to know who she is and ask a friend whether he knows her. You could say:

A girl is talking to Tom. Do you know the girl?

That sounds rather complicated, doesn’t it? It would be easier with a relative clause: you put both pieces of information into one sentence. Start with the most important thing  – you want to know who the girl is.

Do you know the girl …

As your friend cannot know which girl you are talking about, you need to put in the additional information  – the girl is talking to Tom. Use „the girl“ only in the first part of the sentence, in the second part replace it with the relative pronoun (for people, use the relative pronoun „who“). So the final sentence is:

Do you know the girl who is talking to Tom?

Relative Pronouns 

relative pronoun




subject or object pronoun for people

I told you about the woman who lives next door.


subject or object pronoun for animals and things

Do you see the cat which is lying on the roof?


referring to a whole sentence

He couldn’t read which surprised me.


possession for people animals and things

Do you know the boy whose mother is a nurse?


object pronoun for people, especially in non-defining relative clauses (in defining relative clauses we colloquially preferwho)

I was invited by the professor whom I met at the conference.


subject or object pronoun for people, animals and things in defining relative clauses (who or which are also possible)

I don’t like the table that stands in the kitchen.

Subject Pronoun or Object Pronoun? 

Subject and object pronouns cannot be distinguished by their forms – who, which, that are used for subject and object pronouns. You can, however, distinguish them as follows:

If the relative pronoun is followed by a verb, the relative pronoun is a subject pronoun. Subject pronouns must always be used.

the apple which is lying on the table

If the relative pronoun is not followed by a verb (but by a noun or pronoun), the relative pronoun is an object pronoun. Object pronouns can be dropped in defining relative clauses, which are then called Contact Clauses.

the apple (which) George lay on the table

Relative Adverbs 

A relative adverb can be used instead of a relative pronoun plus preposition. This often makes the sentence easier to understand.

This is the shop in which I bought my bike.
→ This is the shop where I bought my bike.

relative adverb





in/on which

refers to a time expression

the day when we met him


in/at which

refers to a place

the place where we met him


for which

refers to a reason

the reason why we met him

Defining Relative Clauses 

Defining relative clauses (also called identifying relative clauses or restrictive relative clauses) give detailed information defining a general term or expression. Defining relative clauses are not put in commas.

Imagine, Tom is in a room with five girls. One girl is talking to Tom and you ask somebody whether he knows this girl. Here the relative clause defines which of the five girls you mean.

Do you know the girl who is talking to Tom?

Defining relative clauses are often used in definitions.

A seaman is someone who works on a ship.

Object pronouns in defining relative clauses can be dropped. (Sentences with a relative clause without the relative pronoun are called Contact Clauses.)

The boy (who/whom) we met yesterday is very nice.

Non-Defining Relative Clauses 

Non-defining relative clauses (also called non-identifying relative clauses or non-restrictive relative clauses) give additional information on something, but do not define it. Non-defining relative clauses are put in commas.

Imagine, Tom is in a room with only one girl. The two are talking to each other and you ask somebody whether he knows this girl. Here the relative clause is non-defining because in this situation it is obvious which girl you mean.

Do you know the girl, who is talking to Tom?

Note: In non-defining relative clauses, who/which may not be replaced with that.

Object pronouns in non-defining relative clauses must be used.

Jim, who/whom we met yesterday, is very nice.

How to Shorten Relative Clauses? 

Relative clauses with whowhichthat as subject pronoun can be replaced with a participle. This makes the sentence shorter and easier to understand.

I told you about the woman who lives next door. – I told you about the woman living next door.

Do you see the cat which is lying on the roof? – Do you see the cat lying on the roof?



Tugas Bahasa Inggris Bisnis 2 (4)

Exercise 37 : Relative Clauses
1. The record that was roduced by this company became gold record.
2. Checking accounts that require a minimum balance are very common now.
3. The professor to whom you spoke yesterday is not here today.
4. John whom grades are the highest in the school has received a scholarship.
5. Felipe bought the camera that has there lenses.
6. Frank the man whom we are going to nominate for the office of treasurer.
7. The doctor is with the patient whom leg was broken in an accident.
8. Jane is the woman whom is going to China next year.
9. Janet wants a typewriter that self-corrects.
10. This book I found that last week contains some usseful information.
11. Mr. Bryant whom team has lost the game looks very sad.
12. James wrote an article that indicated he disliked the president.
13. The director of the program whom graduated from Harvard University is planning to retire next year.
14. This is the book that I have been looking for all year.
15. William whom brother is lawyer wants to become a judge.


Exercise 38 : Relative clause reduction
1. George is the man chosen to represent the committee at the convention.
2. All of the money accepted has already been released.
3. The papers on the table belong to Patricia.
4. The man brought to the police station confessed to the crime.
5. The girl drinking coffee is Mery Allen.
6. John’s wife, a professor, has written several papers on this subject.
7. The man talking to the policeman is my uncle.
8. The book on the top shelf is the one that I need.
9. The number of students counted is quite high.
10. Leo Evans, a doctor, eats in this restaurant every day.


Active voice is a grammatical voice common in many of the world’s languages. It is the unmarked voice for clauses featuring a transitive verbin nominative–accusative languages, including English and most other Indo-European languages.

Active voice is used in a clause whose subject expresses the agent of the main verb. That is, the subject does the action designated by the verb.[1] A sentence whose agent is marked as grammatical subject is called an active sentence. In contrast, a sentence in which the subject has the role of patient or theme is called a passive sentence, and its verb is expressed in passive voice. Many languages have both an active and a passive voice; this allows for greater flexibility in sentence construction, as either the semantic agent or patient may take the syntactic role of subject.[2]


In the following examples the active and passive voice are illustrated with pairs of sentences using the same transitive verb.

Language Active voice Passive voice
English The hunter saw the deer. The deer was seen by the hunter.
French Brackett a écrit ce livre. (Brackett wrote this book.) Ce livre a été écrit par Brackett. (This book was written by Brackett.)
Japanese 犬がかんだ。 (A dog bit [someone].) 犬にかまれた。 (By a dog [I] was bitten.)
German Der Hund biss den Postboten. (The dog bit the postman.) Der Postbote wurde vom Hund gebissen. (The postman was bitten by the dog.)

Tugas Bahasa Inggris Bisnis 2 (3)

English for Business 2: Exercise 36

Excercise 36 English for Business 2 Assignment

1. The teacher made Juan leave the room
2. Toshiko had her car repaired by a mechanic
3. Ellen got Marvin typed her paper
4. I made Jane call her friend on the telephone
5. We got our house painted last week
6. Dr. Byrd is having the students write a composition
7. The policeman made the suspect lie on the ground
8. Mark got his transcripts send to the university
9. Maria is getting her hair cut tomorrow
10. We will have to get the Dean signed this form
11. The teacher let Al leave the classroom.
12. Maria got Ed washed the pipettes
13. She always has her car to fix by the same mechanic
14. Gene got his book published by a subsidy publisher
15. We have to help Janet to find her keys


 ** Because/ because of**

because selalu diikuti dengan kalimat lengkap ( Harus ada Verb nya ) ….because of hanya diikuti sebuah kata benda( noun) atau noun phrase.
(tidak boleh ada konjugasi/penghubung antara because of dengan noun ….

Formula :
…because + Subject + Verb ….
ex : the students arrived late _because_ _there_(Subject) _was_(verb) a traffic jam .
…because of + noun (noun phrase) ….
ex: the students arrived late _because of_ _the traffic jam_ (noun phrase).

note :  
*Because of sering ditukar dengan due to 
*Because juga bisa menjadi sebuah awal kalimat …
ex : because of the rain (noun phrase), we have cancelled the party .

Tugas Bahasa Inggris Bisnis 2 (2)

Exercise 31-34 English for Business 2 Assignment

1. Sam’s new apartement is in a building which has twelve stories. Sam’s new apartement is in a twelve stories building.

2. We teach languages. We are language teachers.

3. My parents saw a play in three acts last night. My parents saw a three acts last night.

4. The manager said that the sale would last for two days. The manager said that it would be a last for two days sale.

5. Hal bought a tool set containing 79 pieces. Hal bought a containing 79 pieces tool set.

6. Margie has a bookcase with five shelve. Margie has a five shelves bookcase.

7. I need two cans of tomatoes that weigh 16 ounces each. I need two weigh 16 ounces cans of tomatoes.

8. I’m looking for a pressure cooker that holds six quarts. I’m looking for a holds six quarts pressure cooker.

9. He is a specialist at building houses made of bricks. He is a specialist at building made of bricks houses.

10. Mrs. Jansen just bought her daughter a bicyle with ten speeds. Mrs. Jansen just bought her daughter a ten speeds bicyle.


Exercise 32: Enough

In the following sentences, choose the correct form in parentheses.

  1. There were not enough people to have meeting.
  2. Allen has learned French enough to study in France next year.
  3. Do you have enough time to talk now?
  4. She drove fast enough to win the race.
  5. Mike will graduate from law school soon enough to join his father’s firm.
  6. We arrived early enough to have some coffee before class began.
  7. It has rained hard enough to flood the low lying areas.
  8. You should type slowly enough that you will not make an error.
  9. He has just enough flour to bake that loaf of bread.
  10. There are enough books for each student to have one.


Exercise 32: Because/Because of

Supply either because or because of as appropriate.

  1. It was difficult to deliver the letter Because the sender had written the wrong address on the envelope.
  2. We decided to leave early Because the party was boring
  3. Rescue attempts were temporarily halted Because of the bad weather.
  4. They visited their friends often Because they enjoyed their company
  5. Paul cannot go to the football game Because of his grades.
  6. Marcella was awarded a scholarship Because her superior scholastic ability.
  7. Nobody ventured outdoors Because of the hurricane warnings.
  8. We plan to spend our vacation in the mountains Because the air is purer there.
  9. We have to drive around the bay Because the bridge was destroyed in the strom.
  10. The chickens have died Because of the intense heat.


Exercise 34: So/Such

Following the formulas, use either so or such in these sentences as appropriate.

  1. The sun shone So brightly that Maria had to put on her sunglasses.
  2. Dean was Such a powerpul swimmer that he always won the races.
  3. There were So few students registered that the class was cancelled.
  4. We had So wonderful memories of that place that we decided to return.
  5. We had So good a time at the party that we hated to leave.
  6. The benefit was So great a success that the promoters decided to repeat it.
  7. It was Such a nice day that we decided to go to the beach.
  8. Jane looked So sick that the nurse told her to go home.
  9. Those were So difficult assignments that we spent two weeks finishing them.
  10. Ray called at Such an early hour that we weren’t a wake yet.
  11. The book looked So interesting that he decided to read it.
  12. He worked So carefully that it took him a long time to complete the project.
  13. We stayed in the sun for Such a long time that we became sunburned.
  14. There were So many people on the bus that we decided to walk.
  15. The program was So entertaining that nobody wanted to miss it.

Tugas Bahasa Inggris Bisnis 2 (1)

Exercise 21 Conditional sentences

  1. will understand
  2. Would not
  3. Will give
  4. Would  told
  5. Would have
  6. Had
  7. Will stop
  8. Needed
  9. Would have found

10. Had enjoyed

  1. Paint

12. Were

13. Writes

14. Had permit

15. Will spend

16. Will accept

17. Buys

18. Had decided

19. Would have writen

20.Will leak

21. Had studied






27.Would have called

28.Would have talked









Exercise 22 Used to

  1. Eating
  2. Eating
  3. Swimming
  4. Like
  5. Speaking
  6. Studying
  7. Dance
  8. Sleeping
  9. Eating

10. Eating


Exercise 26 : Adjectives and Adverbs

  1. Well
  2. Intense
  3. Brightly
  4. Fluent
  5. Fluently
  6. Smooth
  7. Accurately
  8. Bitter
  9. Soon

10. Fast

Exercise 27 : Linking (Copulative) Verbs

  1. Terrible
  2. Well
  3. Good
  4. Calm
  5. Sick
  6. Quickly
  7. Diligently
  8. Vehemently
  9. Relaxedly

10. Noisy



Exercise 28 : Comparisons

  1. As soon
  2. More Important
  3. As well
  4. More Expensive
  5. As hot
  6. More Talented
  7. More Colorful
  8. Happier
  9. Worse

10. Faster

Exercise 29 : Comparisons

  1. Than
  2. Than
  3. Than
  4. Than
  5. Than
  6. More Than
  7. With
  8. Than
  9. More Than

10. More Than

Exercise 30 : Comparisons

  1. Best
  2. Happiest
  3. Faster
  4. Creamiest
  5. More colorful
  6. Better
  7. Good
  8. More awkwardly
  9. Least

10. Prettiest

  1. The best

12. From

13. Less impressive

14. The sicker

15. Than

16. Twice more than

17. Few

18. Much

19. Farthest

20.More famous


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